Correct answers in bold:
1. What are the dates of the Pleistocene?
(a) 2.5 mya – 10 000 years ago
(b) 1.8 mya – 10 000 years ago
(c) 1.8 mya – 5 000 years ago
(d) 20 mya – 2 mya
2. What is retouch?
(a) fine secondary flakes designed to shape a stone flake or create a robust edge
(b) grooves engraved into the edge of a stone tool to increase its aerodynamic qualities
(c) the application of gum to enable a stone tool to be fixed in a handle
(d) evidence of use on the broken edge of a stone tool
3. What is a core?
(a) the hard internal centre of a river pebble
(b) the tool used to strike a rock to produce a flake
(c) the rock that a flake falls from when struck
(d) a long narrow flake used for engraving
4. What is the Australian Small Tool Tradition?
(a) a lithic industry dating from the mid-Holocene featuring backed artifacts and blades
(b) a lithic industry dating from the mid-Pleistocene featuring small axe heads and choppers
(c) a lithic industry dating from the last 2000 years featuring geometric microliths
(d) a lithic industry on the east coast of Australia featuring harpoon heads and ground stone fishhooks.
5. What is a tula?
(a) a narrow blade hafted on a stick
(b) a type of core with three platforms
(c) an axe head made of fine-grained stone
(d) a chunky retouched woodworking tool
6. Which of these is a suitable stone to make flaked stone tools?
7. What is a Kimberley point?
(a) a spear point made of glass
(b) a spear point made of quartz
(c) a very thin spear point
(d) a spear point made by pressure flaking
8. Which of these sites was significant in defining Australian stone tool industries?
(a) Keniff Cave
(b) Denby’s Rockshelter
(c) Naracoorte Caves
(d) Coobool Creek
9. An elouera is:
(a) a wedge-shaped flake used in woodworking
(b) a thick chunky backed flake
(c) a thin blade with a tranchet end
(d) a hafted point from Northern Queensland
10. How does Peter Hiscock explain the adoption of backed artifacts?
(a) a social strategy for communicating over long distances
(b) a strategy to manage risk
(c) a result of diversified resource exploitation
(d) a result of increased population
11. What is bipolar technique?
(a) a method of manufacturing to produce a flake with a wide base and a narrow point
(b) a procurement strategy where high quality materials are reserved for points, while coarse materials are used for everyday flakes
(c) a manufacturing technique where the core is placed on an anvil
(d) pressure flaking alternately on either side of the edge to produce an s-curved profile
12. Quartz in never used for flaked stone tools.
13. Cortex is
(a) a type of siliceous stone deposited in lacustrine environments
(b) the outer weathered rind of a stone pebble
(c) an iron-rich encrustation found on stone tools which have been buried in desert soils
(d) a chemical used for testing for the presence of blood
14. Which of the following was influential in defining Australian stone tool industries in the 1930s?
(a) Vere Gordon Childe
(b) Charles Darwin
(c) Daisy Bates
(d) Fred McCarthy
15. What is a scraper usually used for?
(a) removing shellfish from their shells
(b) removing marrow from bones
(c) removing flesh, skin and hair from animal skins
(d) carving bone or ivory
16. Which of these famous sites was excavated by Normal Tindale?
(a) Devon Downs rockshelter
(b) Cave Bay Cave
(c) Rouse Hill
(d) Carpenter’s Gap
17. Bottle glass can be flaked as if it were stone.
18. What else appeared in Australia around the same time as the Australian Small Tool Tradition?
(b) new languages
(c) backed artifacts
(d) all of the above
(e) none of the above
19. Which of these industries did early researchers think most resembled Australian lithic industries?
(a) the Magdalenian
(b) the Hoabhinian
(c) the Folsom
(d) the Oldowan
20. The Australian Core Tool and Scraper Tradition was a lithic industry made by Homo erectus.
21. A bulb of percussion is:
(a) a rounded protuberance on a hammerstone
(b) a rounded protuberance on the inside (ventral) surface of a flake
(c) a wooden billet used for pressure flaking
(d) a platform that is segment-shaped
22. Which of these use-wear and residue researchers is an Australian archaeologist?
(a) S.A. Semenov
(b) Sylvie Beyries
(c) Johann Kamminga
(d) Roger Grace
(e) All of the above
(f) None of the above
23. In the last 2000 – 1500 years in some parts of Australia, stone tool industries became much simpler
24. Spears are always hafted with flaked stone tools.
25. In a typical surface artefact scatter in Australia, what are you likely to see?
(a) a range of flakes and cores of the same raw material
(b) a range of artefact types, with few cores, and made of a range of different raw materials
(c) at least one edge-ground axe, numerous flakes and cores, and grinding stones.
(d) a few backed artifacts, many flakes, and no cores.
26. What is debitage?
(a) the process of scavenging raw materials from existing archaeological sites
(b) a type of flake found in Queensland with a square platform and thick parallel sides
(c) any flake or chip that is not deliberately retouched
(d) the by-products of knapping that can’t be placed in any specific artefact category
27. What were backed artifacts used for?
(a) circumcision knives
(b) spear points
(c) grass-cutting tools
(d) multi-purpose tools
28. Where would you find Bondaian lithic industries?
(a) in the Kimberley
(b) on Kangaroo Island
(c) in Central Australia
(d) in south-eastern Australia
29. What is a horsehoof core?
(a) a particular multi-platform core type first identified at the Horsehoof Rockshelter in northern NSW
(b) a piece of stone that resembles a core, but has been flaked by the passage of livestock rather than by deliberate knapping
(c) a steep edged core-tool associated with the Kartan culture
(d) a small core that has been flaked until it is exhausted
30. A blade is
(a) a retouched flake hafted for use as a knife
(b) a thin parallel-sided flake more than 3 cm long
(c) a thin parallel-sided flake at least twice as long as it is wide
(d) any flake with evidence of cutting activities when the edge is viewed with high-powered light microscopy.
31. Raw materials for making stone tools were widely traded.
32. If there was no stone available, what could you use instead?
(c) hard wood
(e) all of the above
(d) none of the above